Metaphysical Developer

Conjcraft: A Minecraft Mod implemented in Clojure

Posted in hacking, Languages, Minecraft by Daniel Ribeiro on April 20, 2012

When you don’t create things, you become defined by your tastes rather than ability. Your tastes only narrow & exclude people. So create.

– why the lucky stiff

TL;DR:  Source here, and here a video of the mod in action:

Conjcraft

Conjcraft is a simple and extensible Mod for Minecraft written in Clojure (and some Java). Besides introducing two new blocks (Clojure and Github, which is hosting the source here), it brings an extremely simple and small DSL for writing Minecraft recipes.

The recipe DSL cleans up on on Minecrafts original one (which is alredy terse for a Java DSL). Compare these simple ones:

addRecipe(new ItemStack(Block.rail, 16), new Object[]
                {
                    "X X", "X#X", "X X", 'X', Item.ingotIron, '#', Item.stick
                });
(recipe-dsl {\X :ingotIron \# :stick}
  "X X
   X#X
   X X" 'rail 16)

Small explanation: the Clojure version is essentially the ascii art of this recipe:

Disclaimer: I’ll not try to teach Clojure here (besides saying it is a Lisp). If you need more info, there are great resources on the web.

This gain in expressiveness (which is come from the fact that Clojure is extremely more expressive than Java) is compounded in multiple recipes, specially after defining a consistent character to block/item mapping:

(def char-block (create-input-char-binding
                  '(
                     d dirt
                     o cobblestone
                     g github
                     c clojure
                     r redstone
                     )))

Many recipes can use them:

(defn recipes []
  (recipe-dsl char-block
     "d
      d" 'github

     "o
      o" 'clojure

     "c
      c
      c" 'swordGold

     "c c
      c c" 'bootsGold

     "cgc
      cgc" 'bootsDiamond

     "ccc
      c c
      c c" 'legsGold

     "ccc
      cgc
      cgc" 'legsDiamond
    ))

And finally, all of this is encoded in plain text Clojure files, stored in the conjcraft directory inside  user.home (which on Linux and Mac OS it is usually the user’s home directory, aka ~).

This way Conjcraft is very extensible, as it allows the users to add blocks and recipes, without requiring Eclipse or MCP, or to recompile and obfuscate the de-obfuscated Java code.

Such simplicity, though, did not come easily…

Origins

One of the things that has always amazed me about Minecraft is how simple its concept is. I believe this simplicity is actually paramount to its success: by giving you very solid and small building blocks (no pun intended), the game steps away and let the user create its own goals and be shine on its own.

This simplicity also lets other developers step in and create a huge variety of amazing mods (out of which, one my personal favorites is the Aether mod, for being a very ambitious project, and showing how much great content you can create on top of such a simple and powerful platform).

“Simplicity Ain’t Easy”: Stuart Halloway masterfully made this argument, exploring what simple is (one of the key points being that simple is “not compound”), its importance, and how Clojure is a simple language, which actually makes it very powerful. Inspired on the simplicity and power of both Clojure and Minecraft (and continuing my healthy(?) obsession with Minecraft and Clojure) it seemed only natural for me to set to create a simple mod on top of both platforms (natural because both of them run on top of JVM).

Modding Minecraft with Java is quite straightforward with the help of Minecraft Coder Pack (aka MCP) and ModLoader. Calling clojure from Java is also very straightforward, to the point that you basically need a Java class like this:

public class mod_Conjcraft extends BaseMod {
    public void load() {
        try {
            File file = new File(new File(System.getProperty("user.home"), "conjcraft"), "conjcraft_main.clj");
            System.out.println("Loading clojure mod files from " + file.getAbsolutePath());
            clojure.lang.Compiler.loadFile(file.getAbsolutePath());
            clojure.lang.RT.var("conjcraft", "call").invoke();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new IllegalStateException(e);
        }
    }
}

And then I was able to create a very small function, in 5 lines of Clojure, to add a recipe that would take one block off dirt and output 7 blocks of dirt:

(ns conjcraft)
(import '(net.minecraft.src Block ModLoader ItemStack))
(defn call []
  (let [dirt Block/dirt]
    (ModLoader/addRecipe (ItemStack. dirt 7) (to-array ["#" \# dirt]))))

This actually works pretty well when using Eclipse, or the recompile.sh script that comes with MCP. The fun really began when I started preparing to release it…

The 1st rule of the Obfuscator Club is:

You can’t defeat the obfuscator. This is actually really important. Minecraft is obfuscated in its original distribution, which makes a lot of sense for a proprietary and commercial game. MCP tools de-obfuscate the original java code from its original form, giving methods and classes names very straightforward and sensible names.

The problem is that, in general, gamers will need your mod in the obfuscate code, as they game expects classes to use the obfuscated names. Therefore you absolutely must obfuscate your mod.

The 2nd rule of the Obfuscator Club is:

You can’t defeat the obfuscator.

Clojure does have the capability of generating .class files with its Ahead of Time (AOT) compiler.  Since the obfuscator does not operate on java source code, but on .class files, this could have helped. But it doesn’t. Other languages that run on JVM like Scala (which compiles to pretty Java-like bytecode) and Mirah (which can even compile to Java source code) can actually get around the obfuscator this way, as long as you don’t use features that require reflection.

To understand why it doesn’t work with Clojure, let me show you what this simple AOT example:

(ns core
  (:gen-class :main true))

(defn -main []
  (println "Hello World!"))

With some help of JD-GUI we can see the equivalent Java code of the generated class files, in particular:

public class core
{
  private static final Var main__var = Var.internPrivate("core", "-main");
  private static final Var equals__var = Var.internPrivate("core", "-equals");
  private static final Var toString__var = Var.internPrivate("core", "-toString");
  private static final Var hashCode__var = Var.internPrivate("core", "-hashCode");
  private static final Var clone__var = Var.internPrivate("core", "-clone");

These seemly innocuous lines actually break in runtime. This happens because the obfuscator has another very important property: it puts everything on top level namespace (no packages). Note that the package “core” is written as a literal string, which the obfuscator will not touch. And currently there is no way to use AOT with empty namespaces

You could change the Clojure compiler, or use tools to manipulate the byte code on the class files, but there is actually a much simpler solution:

Breaking the rules: Defeating the Obfuscator

Clojure is famous for supporting one of the most powerful types of metaprogramming: template macros. I have not exploited it on the project because macros can be very hard to understand (think of them as functions that take code in its raw Abstract Syntax Tree form, and output another raw Abstract Syntax Tree), and I wanted to keep the project very accessible.

The point is that I used Clojure to generate Java source code, on compile time (the type of metaprogramming you always have the option to use, no matter the platform or base language you are based on).

This is done by the create_constants.clj script, which actually imports the de-obfuscated code and generates a Java file mapping all block, item and material names to their actual objects (the result cannot be published without breaking both Minecraft and MCP licenses, but reading the code you can get an idea of what the result looks like).

Using the property highlighted before, that the literal strings will not be obfuscated, and knowing that the obfuscator will not obfuscate the attribute names of classes you create (only make stripe their package), this static maps are available to be used directly by interpreted Clojure code.

The final element of defeating the obfuscator is the ExtendableBlock class. It essentially takes Clojure functions (clojure.lang.IFn interface), and delegate methods to them (some methods have to be re-exposed even when public, as the original public method names will be obfuscated).

Conclusions

Modding Minecraft is extremely fun, and it gets a lot more enjoying when doing it in languages that that are fun to use. I’ve used Clojure here, but there are many other languages that could have been used. So have fun, and create.

Thanks

Thanks Notch for making Minecraft and supporting the modding community. Thanks for all the presenters at ClojureWest for inspiring me to bring Clojure to new places. Thanks Robert for making one of the best Minecraft modding tutorials out there. And finally thanks to all the creators of MCP and ModLoader for making modding a simpler and pleasant experience.

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Implementing Minecraft in WebGL

Posted in hacking, Minecraft by Daniel Ribeiro on December 20, 2011

TL;DR: Source here, live demo here.

ROME project

ROME project

WebGL is an amazing piece of technology that enables browsers to natively render hardware accelerated 3d creations (yay, no o3d plugin needed!). I’ve always been specially amazed by what Mr Doob has been doing with his Three.js framework for quite a while (in particular his participation on the ROME project, which I briefly talked about recently). Nonetheless, there are some other amazing WebGL creations around, such as those featured on Chrome Experiments, those crafted by OOS and the projects recently presented on WebGLCamp (not to mention the amazing Team Fortress 2 level vizualizer).

One thing that has bothered me though, throughout all the examples, is the lack of interactivity (one glaring exception was GLGE‘s car demo) .

This seemed to be from the fact the 3d collision is quite a bit more involved than 2d (MIT’s lecture notes on Computational Geometry, and even on Doom 3’s recently released source code, can give you an idea of how much involved it can get). And since this is considered to be one of the important things  that 3d games need, I was not happy with my hands off answer of this topic on Hacker News. Thus I took the challenge of making a a 3d game in WebGL with collision detection.

Implementing Minecraft Classic (which is playable online for free) seemed like a good candidate for such project, as its mechanics are simple, and yet meaningful (not to mention that I am big fan of Notch’s creation). If you don’t know anything about Minecraft, I wrote a small intro about it a few months ago.

Enterprise created in Minecraft

Three.js was selected as the rendering lib not only because I really like Mr Doob’s work, but also because it has is quite mature, is open source, has lots of examples and provides a very promising starting point: a visualization of a Minecraft world, which includes a noise function for generating it.

So all that was left was just adding Collision Detection. Well… this is where things started getting interesting.

Minecraft Collision Detection Attempt 1: JigLibJS

Jiglibjs is a port of Jiglibflash, which in itself is a port of Jiglib for c++. It seemed pretty promising, since there was some people using it (along with three.js), and I had great success with using physics libs in the past for 2d games, so it seemed like a natural choice.

After getting it to work with a prototype of the game, it became clear that some things were very wrong. The amazing demos were too simple for Minecraft, and the rotation would get really wrong when walking on simple plane surfaces (something I speculate happening due to some numerical stability differences from ActionScript and Javascript, alongside with some AS3-> Flash compiler bugs).

JigLibJS demo

After some fun 4 dimension matrix hacking, and failing to get around the bugs, I was ready to move on. Thankfully I found another port of JigLibJS which seemed to correct such issues…

Minecraft Collision Detection Attempt 2: JigLibJS2

The fact that someone tried to make a more complex example on JigLibJS, failed, but was tenacious enough to write its own AS3 -> JS compiler to make another port (which worked!) made a very positive impression.

JigLibJS2 Vehicle Physics Demo

It was also very positive the fact that the interface was almost the same to JigLibJS, making the change to the existing code very small. The problems started to come when trying to make the player cube jump: the cube would not always collide with the bottom plane. This was solved by making more collision iterations. Soon enough another problem came up: when trying to move inside an adjacent static cube (even when both the player and the cube were in the same height), sometimes the player would get a rotation. Trying to set it to no rotation every iteration did not actually help, as the player would still sometimes get a vertical velocity when trying to penetrate the block.

Still, rolling my own Physics Engine seemed a bit daunting, and I decided to try out another lib:

Minecraft Collision Detection Attempt 3:  Ammo.js

Ammo.js is a port of the C++ physics engine BulletPhysics, that runs on top of the LLVM‘s Javascript port, aka Emscripten. Everything looked amazing this time: the demos not only looked great, but were very hackable, and had no problems that I previously had.

Ammo.js Demo

But then it came the time to try to get to more Minecrafty world dimensions. It was a bit disappointing when mere 400 cubes made the physics engine go to a crawl (even when using static cubes). It became clear that I needed O(1) collision algorithms, which is very doable for Minecraft Classic, as only the player can move, and there is always a constant amount of cubes the player can collide with at any given time. And now there were no more libs left to evaluate.

Minecraft Collision Detection Attempt 4:  Rays!

Rays are the standard way of detecting line/Object collision in Three.js. A very simple interactive demo by OOS seemed like it could do the trick. It had the advantage of being very simple, and constant time (given that I selected the possible blocks to collide with, as the traditional Ray.intersectObjects actually tries to intersect all objects on the Scene).

Ray Collision Demo

The OOS example had some issues (like trapping the player cube when jumping up and down, while hodling the forward key). This was solvable by using 12 rays correspoding to the edges of the cube that represented the player. Actually, this did not help all the time, as some rays would not collide with the world blocks if the ray’s origin inside a blocks’s face. This is a bug yet to be solved, but I got around it by using 24 rays (two directions for every edge of the player cube).

Things were going well enough that I finally moved into adding textures to the game. However, after making the player cuboid have size dimensions to Minecraft’s, instead of having the same size of the world’s cube (which was what I was experimenting with so far), I noticed that the ray would give false positives depending on the height position of the cube. This only happened when the numbers were all too exact, instead of with minor deltas, as you’d expect from using rays cast from the mouse pointer (as it is usually used on Three.js’ demos).

This, and the fact that collision was taking about half the time of every tick (which was constant, due the improved collision algorithm) made me move on to…

Minecraft Collision Detection Attempt 5: Cube Projection

Up until now I had hopes that I would be able to eventually rotate the player cuboid according to its camera. After having so many troubles with so many collision systems, I simplified the problem: collision of unrotated cuboids. This is a really simple problem: from the Separating Plane Theorem, it is easy to see that  I only need to see if the orthogonal projections of the cuboids, which, from the Separating Axis Theorem, means I only need to check out if the unrotated rectangles from the projected faces collide, which finally means I only need to check if the projected intervals collide. All of this amounts to 13 lines of Coffeescript:

CollisionUtils =
    # The two intervals are [s1, f1] and [s2, f2]
    testIntervalCollision: (s1, f1, s2, f2) -> !(s2 > f1 || s1 > f2)

    #Cubes are objects with vmax, vmin (the vertices with greatest/smallest values)
    #properties. Assumes unrotated cubes.
    testCubeCollision: (cube1, cube2) ->
        fcol = CollisionUtils.testIntervalCollision
        for axis in ['x', 'y', 'z']
            collides = fcol cube1.vmin[axis], cube1.vmax[axis]
            , cube2.vmin[axis], cube2.vmax[axis]
            return false unless collides
        return true

window.CollisionUtils = CollisionUtils

Which in retrospect is what I should have tried in the first place. At least I learned some stuff in the process.

Not quite finished yet: Camera

Paul Irish did a pretty amazing job with the Three.js FirstPersonControls.js, which is the one that powers the Three.js Minecraft visualizer. The problem with this camera is that it makes hard to actually play Minecraft, as its default mode is to be always moving, making hard to place/remove blocks. Real Minecraft uses first person shooter camera which cannot be achieved with current browsers, as there is no way to trap the user’s mouse. Nevertheless, Minecraft on Android uses a touch and drag camera that can easily be implemented in JS. This camera works they same way as the one on Brandon Jones’ Quake 3 WebGL implementation.

Quake 3 demo

Therefore I refactored, and converted to Coffeescript, the FirstPersonControls to work as a click and drag camera. The resulting 86 lines of code can be seen here.

Adding/Removing Blocks

This is where Rays worked really well. In fact, Mr. Doob even have a voxel editor example which shows really well how to make an app that adds/removes cubes on a 3d grid:

The only issue I’ve found was that my floor plane was too big, which messed up the Ray/plane collision in certain angles. So I coded this intersection directly:

    getCubeOnFloorPosition: (ray) ->
        return null if ray.direction.y >= 0
        ret = vec()
        o = ray.origin
        v = ray.direction
        t = (-o.y) / v.y
        ret.y = 0
        ret.x = o.x + t * v.x
        ret.z = o.z + t * v.z
        return @addHalfCube ret

Conclusions

I felt the result was quite satifying (the live demo, and the MIT licensed source, can both be found on Github):

Minecraft Brick Pyramid

WebGL Brick Pyramid

Granted, it starts skipping frames quite often as you add more blocks. The original example from Dr. Doob’s  didn’t because he created a single Mesh (aka object scene) composed of all blocks. Doing such would make adding/removing blocks a lot more involved (or force me to handle some area loading/unloading), which is a project in itself. Note that the rendering, and not the collision system, is the real bottleneck at this point.

All of this made me admire Notch’s work on Minecraft a lot more, as Minecraft can handle over 21×21 loaded chunks of 16x16x128 (over 14 million blocks!) in any given time. The Three.js community had some great insights on how to achieve such performance over WebGL, which requires the use of shaders, which are quite low level (even if you use the respective TDL Google Library for this, or GPipe to write the shaders in Haskell), and would probably require a lot of collision code to be also written in also a very low level language (slash GPipe’s Haskell). I found it also interesting that shaders can be used in some clever ways to improve JS performance.

And finally, it is important to note that a lot of very people a lot smarter than me have been doing some great work to make working with WebGL and making 3d games much simpler.

There are also other renderer libraries besides Three.js: Scene.js, PhiloGL, A3 (recently presented on the WebGL Camp), Coppercube (which is not open source, but can use flash for 3d rendering as well) and GLGE.

Hacker News Comments

ClojureScript vs Coffeescript

Posted in hacking, Languages by Daniel Ribeiro on August 28, 2011

A language that doesn’t affect the way you think about programming, is not worth knowing

Alan J. Perlis

Edit Feb/2014: Please note that this post is from 2011, a few weeks after Clojurescript was released. Things changed a lot in the mean time…

In the past few years Javascript has gained a lot of attention and ubiquity: HTML5 technologies leverage a lot of Javascript, which enables people to create amazing dream worlds (like the in the ROME project) with WebGL, V8 brings a lot of JIT techniques to a JavaScript Virtual Machine which helps Google Chrome be a very fast browser, and powers NodeJS (allowing people to create a web page in a single programming language).

Javascript also powers queries in NoSQL databases like Mongo and CouchDB, and it can be used when making QT applications, 3d Games in Unity and even mobile apps with frameworks like WebMynd and PhoneGap. It has been a long way from the old days when it was confined to the browser, and mostly used for form validation.

In spite of all of this attention, Javascript has been so misunderstood that attention to its Good Parts had to drawn. It doesn’t help that its prototype based OO was first introduced by the rather unknown language Self, despite the several advantages it has when compared to traditional class based OO (the paper Organizing Programs Without Classes, written by Google’s Senior VP of Operations Urs Hölzle, who, among other things, also contributed to key JIT techniques like polymorphic inline caching).

Therefore it is not surprising that there are many projects that compile existing languages to Javascript. Many of these were too focused on the web platform (like Google Web Toolkit and the amazing Cappuccino‘s Objective-j). On more recent years languages are targeting the whole JS ecosystem (which makes a very poignant argument that JavaScript is Assembly Language for the Web). Coffeescript is one of such languages, which very fond (I’ve written about it recently).

About a month ago ClojureScript was released, porting the Clojure language from Java ecosystem to the JS. Clojure is quite an amazing effort of engineering, not only for being a very successful Lisp on the JVM, but also for its novel approach of handling time and state (which its creator, Rich Hickey, explains really well).

I was really excited to see the examples, but I was a bit bummed out that the most interesting example was a Twitter visualization tool (which feels a bit too much like a 2010 app). Since both CoffeeScript and Clojure are fun languages, and I wanted to see how ClojureScript would compare to CoffeeScript, I took the challenge and crafted a simple game HTML5 physics based game on both languages, using Box2dWeb, a js port of Box2D (the physics engine, created by Erin Catto, that is behind Angry birds).

The game consists of clicking on the objects to destroy them, so that they don’t reach the top of the canvas (and, in another very Tetris like fashion, the elements pop out faster the more you play). It really sticks to the bare minimum of Terrano’s Hierarchy of Gamer Needs. All the code is open source and can be found on Github. The CoffeeScript‘s version source can be found here, and the ClojureScript‘s here.

Lessons Learned

Disclaimer: ClojureScript is pretty much in alpha status, so many things are likely to improve in the future.

Compiling: The first thing that really pops up is how fast Coffeescript compiles down to JS. The watch behavior allows you to fire the compilation process and forget it. ClojureScript takes me about 5 seconds to compile a single file. Granted it gives warning about unused/undefined variables, but I’d really prefer it to compile instantly and let the browser tell me this on runtime.

Namespaces: Clojure’s namespace are implemented as global variables, which are shadowed by local variables with the same name. For instance, if you are in a namespace called game, don’t use local variables and arguments named game. This is really important, as ClojureScript will use the global namespace for every single function defined in that namespace, so shadowing it is likely to give all sorts of errors.

ClojureScript is not Clojure: Fogus wrote an interesting piece on the lack of eval on ClojureScript. Even though I find it might make sense for some web pages, when making WebGL games, or even Canvas 2d games, the assets size can easily overshadow then entire library’s size. Which is not a big deal if you use HTML5’s Cache manifest. In the end, it felt very much like the opposite of the Lisp spirit (epitomized by Paul Graham on his Five Questions about Language Design: “Give the Programmer as Much Control as Possible“).

The documentation is quite clear that eval is not supported. What it is not clear, is that this argument against eval permeates many other functions: resolve is not implemented (neither ns-resolve, or the *ns* definition). Without both of them, there is no way to transform a string into a function. For people more used to OO languages, like Javascript, Ruby and Python, this essentially means that ClojureScript doesn’t have any reflection APIs. On the game:

createElement: ->
  randomY = (0.2 + 0.4 * Math.random())*  H / @scale
  randomX = (Math.random() * (W - 50) + 25) / @scale
  type = @objectList[randomInt(@objectList.length)]
  @["create#{type}"] randomX, randomY, Math.random() + 1

The last line of the Coffeescript version uses reflection to get the correct method name (to decide to invoke createTriangle, createCircle or createSquare ). The ClojureScript version had to be translated into:

(defn- create-element [game]
  (let [randomY (/ (* H (+ 0.2 (* 0.4 (rand)))) scale)
        randomX (/ (+ 25 (* (rand) (- W 50))) scale)
        type (rand-nth [:circle :square :triangle])
        method (keyword (str "create-" (name type)))]
    ((@game method) game randomX randomY (inc (rand)))
    )
  )

Which is possible because the game has the respective functions as keyword attributes, which can be easily converted from string interpolation.

User Macros are not supported: At the moment at least (support for it is likely to come on following updates). This makes the situation above much harder to take. But this is mostly due to ClojureScript’s alpha status. This does make the code a bit longer (the CoffeeScript version has 236 lines, while the ClojureScript has 301 lines). In order to circumvent what I consider that would be one of the ugliest bits caused by lack of macros (several (set! (. obj attr) value) calls), I defined a js-set function:

(defn- js-set
  "Sets an attribute name to a value on a javascript object
Returns the original object"
  ([jsobject attr value]
    (do (native-set-wrapper jsobject attr value)
      jsobject))
  ([jsobject & values]
    (do (doseq [[attr value] (apply hash-map values)]
          (native-set-wrapper jsobject attr value))
      jsobject)))

This is actually really against Clojure’s spirit, as Clojure really promotes immutable code. However Javascript libraries, in particular Box2dWeb, really expect mutable state. Therfore handling native js objects require such functions (note that converting them to clojure and keeping it on clojure land can be easily done with the nice undocumented function js->clj function, which is actually used on TwitterBuz).

Therefore we can write functions this way

(defn- create-fixture
  ([shape] (js-set (b2FixtureDef.)
  :density 3
  :friction 0.3
  :restitution 0.9
  :shape shape
))
([] (create-fixture nil))
)

Instead of:

(defn- create-fixture
  ([shape] (let [f (b2FixtureDef.)]
  (set! (. f density) 3)
  (set! (. f friction) 0.3)
  (set! (. f restitution) 0.9)
  (set! (. f shape) shape)
))
([] (create-fixture nil)))

Which makes it look a lot like assoc function for creating maps with updated values. This version inspired me to refactor the Coffeescript version using a similar assoc function:

createFixture = (shape) ->
f = new b2FixtureDef
f.density = 3.0
f.friction = .3
f.restitution = .9
f.shape = shape if shape?
return f

became:

assoc = (o, i) -> o[k] = v for k, v of i; o

createFixture = (shape) ->
assoc new b2FixtureDef,
density: 3
friction: .3
restitution: .9
shape: shape

Which is quite similar to ClojureScript’s version (the colons are on the right instead of the left, and it requires a comma). Which reduces the amount of accidental complexity to a minimum.

Edit: Thanks everybody for pointing out that you can use macros with Clojurescript. However, at the moment, the are clojure macros (so no js), and they require you hacking your clojurescript to add the macro files in the classpath. Hiccups and cljs-3d are two projects that do this, so you can see on their build files how they do this. Even then, you still need to use require-macros. All of this makes macros less of a native feature on Clojurescript, and it makes a lot harder to share code seamlessly.

IDE support: Clojure’s IDE support is really nice. Intellij’s La Clojure (avaiable on its free Community Version) does a lot more than mere syntax highlight: minimal refactoring support, rainbow parenthesis, smart parenthesis, syntax highlighted repl, great autocomplete support, awesome code navigation, autocomplete for java classes and live templates. And it works pretty well for ClojureScript as well. Other IDEs are also great, even though Emacs support can be a bit more intense on its setup (which is not something emacs users are unfamiliar with).

Even though I am really happy with Github’s founder Chris Wanstrath work on the Emacs mode for Coffeescript, it doesn’t have the same support that Clojure does. It is getting more and more support, but nowadays Clojure has the upper hand.

Debugging support: Browser support for debugging languages that compile down to javascript is coming, but at the moment Cofffeescript compiles down to such a readable JS that it not a big problem. This is a known issue with ClojureScript at the moment. Even on pretty print compile mode.

Conclusions

Since Javascript on the web has a much more simple execution model than Java, Clojure’s amazing concurrency control mechanisms are not as shining. Nevertheless ClojureScript is a delight to work with. As it moves out of its Alpha status, many of the issues are likely to be gone. I also expect it to support the full Clojure language (including things like resolve, letfn, macros and eval), as writing web apps in a single language on client and server is a really nice feature. This would also make ClojureScript even more interesting, as it would allow developers do leverage all the power of existing Clojure libraries into their Javascript work (and possibly use it on a more polyglot environment).

Coffeescript is more suitable for production apps right now, but it is nice to see all these developer efforts to allow people to be more productive and happy with their work on Javascript platforms (this way we don’t have to wait for Google’s NaCl and PNaCL, which promise to bring even more languages to the environment).

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Hacking a Gnuplot into Minecraft

Posted in hacking by Daniel Ribeiro on July 31, 2011

For those who don’t know, Minecraft is an inspiring indie game that places the gamer into a sandbox 3d world, where everything is made of blocks. Blocks can also be crafted into other blocks through recipes. Besides having over 10 million users and being feature on Techcrunch, what makes it quite unique is what the users have created with it: from a 3d block replica of the enterprise, to giant spaceships and entire 8 bit CPUs. Users even created a real time kinetic world terraformer, a tool that lets you use a 3d printer to bring to physical world creations from minecraft, and tools to import good old fashioned 3d models into minecraft.

As expected, Minecraft has its tools and mods. And even though there are several libs for view the world of a save file, I found that, in spite of its vibrant community, there were no libs for editing the world. Note that MCEdit allows some  hacking, but it is mostly a GUI editor (and a very good one in my opinion).

So I hacked together a simple library for manipulating the world files called RubyCraft. To illustrate the simplicity it enables, turning the first chunk completely into gold is a simple one line:

Region.fromFile(filename).chunk(0, 0).block_map { :gold }

And making all blocks into orange wool is as simple as

Region.fromFile(filename).chunk(0, 0).each do |b|
  b.name = :wool
  b.color = :orange
end

The result:

The issue with this Api is that it leaks a bit the Minecraft abstraction of how the world is divided. In a nutshell, the world is divided into region files, each one is divided into a 32 x 32 matrix of chunks, which is nothing more than a 16x16x128 cube of blocks. To manipulate the chunks inside a region file, you can request a cube, giving its initial point, width, length and height. The same code above could be written ignoring the chunk abstraction like this:

r = Region.fromFile(filename)
c = r.cube(0, 0, 0, :width => 16, :length => 16, :height => 128)
c.each do |block, z, x, y|
  block.name = :wool
  block.color = :orange
end

A cube can span several chunks, but at the moment it can’t span several regions. It might not be a big issue, as a Region is a pretty large area (it contains over 33 million blocks), and it can take a while to save an entire region (the time it takes to save a Region is proportional to the changed chunks), even in JRuby (which I found to be 3 times as fast than MRI for this particular task).

A Gnuplot in my Minecraft

Edit: The save file for the resulting world can be found here.

After turning Minecraft world file into a 3d matrix, making a two real function plotter quite simple. The plotting_example.rb mostly contains code that decide the area where the graph will be plotted, centering the function on the xz axis, and more importantly, it plots f(x, y) for a given f:

def plot(function, fillFunction)
cube = getCube
middlePointX = length / 2
middlePointZ = width / 2
centeredF = proc do |x, z|
function.call(x - middlePointX, z - middlePointZ).ceil
end
points = Set.new
yzraster(centeredF, points)
yxraster(centeredF, points)
modifyBlocks(cube, centeredF, fillFunction, points)
end

Quite straightforward. The functions yxraster and yzraster have a mild subtlety: just plotting the points of f(x, y) can prevent a look from looking continuous. In general plotting algorithms you have to find a plane or another elementary surface to approximate a small region. As minecraft only contains blocks, I’ve joined all points by discrete line segments, using Bresenham’s line algorithm (source here). This is done by transversing the plotting cube with xy planes, and then with zy planes (therefore only the 2d version of Bresenham algorithm is needed).

Also note that f(x, y) is coerced into integer values by taking the ceil. This is because Bresenham’s algorithm expects points defined on Z x Z, but is expected, as the resulting points would have to be coerced into a integer y coordinate anyway because of the Minecraft world definition.

With all of  this, the following examples are easy to create:

Diamond Cone:

plotWith :diamond_block do |x, z|
   sqrt((x** 2 + z ** 2) / 3) * 5 + 20
end

Water Hyperbolic Paraboloid

    plotWith :water do |x, z|
      (x** 2 - z ** 2) / 3 + 50
    end

Lava Surface 10 of Gnuplot examples

    plotWith :lava do |x, z|
      log(x ** 4 * z ** 2 + 2) + 20
    end

Netherrack Surface15 of Gnuplot examples

    plotWith :netherrack do |x, z|
      (sin(sqrt(z ** 2 + z ** 2)) / sqrt(x ** 2 + z ** 2)) * 30 + 30
    end

Golden rotated Sine

    plotWith :gold do |x, z|
      sin(sqrt((x** 2 + z ** 2)) / 2) * 10 + 30
    end

Ice Sphere (half sphere actually)

    plotWith :ice do |x, z|
      sqrt(18**2 - x**2 - z **2) + 30
    end

Wooden Polynomial

    plotWith :log do |x, z|
      x /= 5
      z /= 5
      (x + z) ** 5 + x**3 + z**2 + 30
    end

Obysidan Polynomial Quotient

    plotWith :obsidian do |x, z|
      p1 = (x + z) ** 6 - x ** 3 + z **2 + 50
      p2 = x ** 7 + 6* z ** 6 - x **4 - z**2 + 30
      p1 / p2 + 10
    end

Colorful Paraboloid

    plot(proc {|x, z| (x** 2 + z ** 2) / 3}, proc do |b, z, x, y|
        b.name = :wool; b.data = OrderedColors[y * 16 / 128].data
      end)

The Ordered Colors of the Colorful Paraboloid are the Wool Colors of minecraft sorted by distance to the black color. The distance definition is the same as the one from the kinetic experiment.

The plotting class cannot plot parametric surfaces at the moment. However, since the graphs are real minecraft objects, they can be manipulated as any other minecraf object. For instance, it is possible to turn the golden rotated sine into a roller coaster (source here):

All the code is open source and can be fount on Github.

Acknowledgements

The examples use an edited version of the Low Dirt Tyken‘s test world. The screenshots were take while flying using Single Player Commands mod. The algorithm for parsing the region file was based on Weeble’s work. Parsing the nbt binary is done through NbtFile gem.

Peter Norvig’s Spelling Corrector in 21 Lines of Coffeescript

Posted in Languages by Daniel Ribeiro on March 31, 2011

Coffeescript is a very nice (and relatively new) language that compiles down to javascript, making web programming (and making firefox plugins, nodejs apps, and so forth) much more joyful. Its object model is the same as javascript (one of coffeescript’s motto is Unfancy JavaScript), and its compiled js form is quite easy to read and debug. It has many niceties, including classes (effectively making the prototype chain a first class citizen of the language) and array/object comprehensions (heavily influenced by python’s list comprehensions).

Ruby also has a influence on the language, such as optional parenthesis on method/function invocation. In fact, the original version of Coffeescript compiler was written in Ruby (but nowadays coffeescript is a self-hosting language).

Coffeescript has been used by several projects, including a mobile framework written by Rail’s creator 37 signals. I’ve been using for about one year (including some open source work using a HTML 5 Canvas framework called EaselJs, a port of ruby functionalities and even a Firefox plugin).

Because of all the Ruby and Python influence on the language, and the fact that Coffeescript can convey beautiful and concise code, I had a hunch that it could get a really good position on Peter Norvig’s Spelling Corrector implementation collection (Javascript’s version currently has 53 lines, which is a lot more than python‘s 21). With some work, I managed to implement it in 21 lines as well:

words = (text) -> (t for t in text.toLowerCase().split(/[^a-z]+/) when t.length > 0)
Array::or = (arrayFunc) -> if @length > 0 then @ else arrayFunc()
Array::flat = -> if @length == 0 then @ else @[0].concat(@[1..].flat())
train = (features) ->
 model = {}
 (model[f] = if model[f] then model[f] +1 else 2) for f in features
 return model
NWORDS = train(words(require('fs').readFileSync('./lib/big.txt', 'utf8')))
alphabet = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'.split ""
edits1 = (word) ->
 s = ([word.substring(0, i), word.substring(i)] for i in [0..word.length])
 deletes = (a.concat b[1..] for [a, b] in s when b.length > 0)
 transposes = (a + b[1] + b[0] + b.substring(2) for [a, b] in s when b.length > 1)
 replaces = (a + c + b.substring(1) for c in alphabet for [a, b] in s when b.length > 0)
 inserts = (a + c + b for c in alphabet for [a, b] in s)
 return deletes.concat transposes.concat replaces.flat().concat inserts.flat()
known_edits2 = (word) -> ((e2 for e2 in edits1(e1) when NWORDS[e2]? for e1 in edits1(word)).flat())
known = (words) -> (w for w in words when NWORDS[w])
correct = (word) ->
 candidates = known([word]).or -> known(edits1(word)).or -> known_edits2(word).or -> [word]
 ({k: w, v: NWORDS[w] or 1} for w in candidates).sort((a, b)-> b.v  - a.v)[0].k

All the code is hosted on github. The code above can be seen in a more readable version here (after line 21 it also contains a full test, using a fixture generated by a slightly modified version of Peter Norvig’s original implementation). There is a more testable version, along with Jasmine BDD tests (which look a lot like Rspec’s in Coffeescript), which run headless on NodeJs, but work just fine in the browsers.

Considerations

Findall regex doesn’t exists natively in Javascript, however it is equivalent to spiting by the complementary regex (line 1)

Array::or (line 2) was needed to be implemented, because Python’s truthfulness allows a collection to be true (actually, any iterable) as long as it is not empty. Array::flat (line 3) has to be implemented because Coffeescript’s loop comprehension is a bit different from python’s: double loops (example: x + y for y in col1 for z in col2) return array of arrays instead of a single array.

Also note that loop comprehension’s order is inverted (x + y for x for y in python is translated as x + y for y for x).

Granted, this version runs really fast on NodeJs 0.4.1, and I was quite happy with how the resulting code looked. I was even happier that I did not have to write the compiled Javascript file and its whooping 147 lines of Spelling Corrector.

To see the reason why this work, check out Peter Norvig’s original post.

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